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07 & 08 Defining Recipients of Zakat

The “(1)destitute and the (2)impoverished” share the characteristic of needing help to meet their basic needs, so here zakat is not for the well-off or for the strong and capable [of earning a living]. “(3)Those who work with it” are the ones who collect it, store it, keep records of it, etc. “(4)Those whose hearts are to be brought near” – these will be mentioned in the next chapter about the fei. “(5)The captives” includes assisting slaves who are working under agreement for their freedom, ransoming prisoners of war and the outright freeing of slaves. These are the strongest statements regarding this category. “(6)Those in debt” means those who have a lot of debt and no means to pay them. They can be given that which covers their debts, even if it is a large amount – unless that debt was incurred during anything involving disobedience to Allah Most High. Such can not be given anything unless they repent. “(7)In the path of Allah” means the soldiers going to battle who have not already been given from Allah’s wealth that which suffices them for their expedition. They are given that which enables them to fight or the rest of what they need whether that be horses, weapons, expenses or wages. Hajj (Pilgrimage) is also part of “in the path of Allah as the Prophet (sas) said. “(8)The son of the road” is the one [stranded] while travelling from one place to another..

# 2008-03-08 by samorgan | Islam Political Science

06 Distribution of Captured Wealth

..Spoils continued to be divided among those who fought through the Umayyid State and the Abbasid State when the Muslims were engaged with the Romans, the Turks and the Berber. However, it is lawful for the Imam to give and increase to some who have excelled in their efforts such as a vanguard who went out ahead of the army or a man who scaled a fortification and opened the gate or who overcame the vanguard of the enemy and brought about a victory and the like. The Prophet (sas) and his successor used to practice this..

# 2008-03-08 by samorgan | Islam Political Science

05 Property, Debts, Deposits, Trusts, Orphans etc.

Included in this section are: physical property, debts private and public such as: the return of deposits, partnership funds, agency, investments (mudhaarib), property of orphans under guardianship, beneficiaries of trusts and the like. Likewise the payment of debts consisting of the sale price of merchandise, loans, dowries, rents and the like. Allah said:..

# 2008-03-08 by samorgan | Islam Political Science

04 Determining Qualified Leaders & Representatives

he most important issue in this chapter is how to determine the most appropriate/qualified person for any responsibility. It is accomplished by first knowing the goal of that position and the way to that goal. Once the objectives and the means are identified, the issue is completed. Thus, since most kings have as their objective [things of] this life and not Islam, they assign to responsibilities those who will aid them and support them in that intention. Similarly, the one who seeks leadership for himself will prefer to assign those who reinforce his presidency. The established sunnah was that whoever leads the Muslims in Friday prayers and daily congregational prayers and delivers the Friday khutba, these same ones are the generals in war, the representatives of the ruler over the military. This is why once the Prophet (sas) selected Abu Bakr over the prayer, the Muslims subsequently selected him as the Amir of war and of their affairs generally..

# 2008-03-08 by samorgan | Islam Political Science

03 Choosing Between Strengths

every appointment is to pick the most beneficial choice for that particular responsibility. If the choice is between two individuals one greater in trustworthiness and the other greater in strength/ability, the one which must be promoted is the most beneficial in that particular position – and the least harmful in that position. In the Ministry of Defense, the strong and courageous – even with some character flaws – takes precedence over another who is weak and incapable, even if more trustworthy. Imam Ahmad was once asked regarding a choice between two leaders over a military expedition, one strong but corrupt and the other pious but weak with which one should I join? The Imam answered, “As for the strong but corrupt, his strength is for the Muslims and his corruption is upon himself. With the pious but weak one, his piety is for himself but his weakness is upon the Muslims. So, go with the strong but corrupt.”

# 2008-03-08 by samorgan | Islam Political Science